101 Reasons Why I'm a Vegetarian (2009)

(Eighth edition, pamphlet version)

By Pamela Rice

Table of Contents and Index
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Table of Contents

Click on number to go right to the reason number
1. Cheap meat, a function of animal cruelty, has become ubiquitous throughout our culture

2. It's the manure, stupid: some startling facts and figures about the back end of meat

3. Now, would you like a little cancer with that fat and protein in your burger?

4. Humans are scouring the oceans of fish; come 2048, say goodbye to fish stocks

5. Humane Slaughter Act: so worthless, it's hardly worth the paper it's written on

6. Survive the heart attack, live with the heart failure; of course there are alternatives

7. Farmed animals: creatures, all, possess abundant abilities, intelligence, and heart

8. As we cycle grain through animals, feed-to-flesh ratios tell a story of shameful waste

9. Antibiotic resistance: end product of on-farm use of antibiotics for growth promotion

10. Meat pathogens sicken thousands annually, and the economic cost is surprisingly steep

11. Veggie diet kills a killer--it can reverse heart disease, clinical studies show

12. Subsidized Midwestern water has given us mountains of meat but poisoned wells, too

13. Fill up on nutrient-dense plant food, nudge out the fat and cholesterol in meat

14. World's livestock responsible for 38 percent more greenhouse gasses than world's vehicles

15. Regulations to combat illegal fishing fail up against fierce consumer demand

16. Caged commercial hens are imprisoned in crammed, crowded unsanitary cages

17. Consumer Reports buys 525 packages of supermarket chicken; finds few free of bacteria

18. Recently, two large clinical studies found the vegan diet conducive to lower body weight

19. Unfathomable amounts of slaughterhouse byproduct material fosters a "recycling" industry

20. Virtually no laws ban cruel farming/slaughter practices; the industry has seen to it

21. Fecal filth abounds in poultry plants; rinsing carcasses (industry norm) found ineffective

22. 70 percent of world's precious little usable water goes to agriculture, much to grow feed crops

23. Meat is a guzzler of fossil-fuel energy; when cheap oil is gone, cheap meat will be history

24. Cattle are forced to live in their own feces, which can migrate to meat during processing

25. Wild salmon in Norway wiped out by an aquaculture parasite; Scotland fears spread

26. Every natural urge of commercially raised hens is thwarted in today's confinement facilities

27. In a vegetarian world, hungry people would get plenty to eat, as projected forward to 2050

28. It's official: Swine flu is a pandemic; and giant factory farms likely to blame

29. North Carolina's smelly pig feedlots are regulated (somewhat), not so those of chickens

30. Fancy veal calves are kept immobilized in crates for their entire, short, 16-week lives

31. An exploding human population, the planet's sagging grain reserves, on a collision course

32. ABC Primetime films typical meat plant featuring yellow-sore laden carcasses, fecal matter

33. Artificial insemination's widespread use in meat industry means bestiality is institutional

34. DrBenjamin Spock professed veganism almost universally in last edition of baby book

35. 10 million tons of poultry litter that is served up to U.Slivestock every year pose risks

36. Cattle likely the leading player in land degradation, pollution, climate change, overfishing

37. Low-carb diets strain the kidneys and cause dehydration, fatigue, and dizziness

38. Farmed animals, right down to their DNA, must stand up to the industrial process

39. Predator control services provided to America's ranchers, compliments of the USDA

40. Magnesium deficiencies linked to countless health problems; vegan diet, the answer

41. Two major studies recently found a direct link between red-meat and breast cancer

42. Many egg feedlot operations employ force molting, via starvation, to recharge laying

43. Fish feel pain, possess fully formed nervous systems, engage in complex behaviors

44. Slaughter plants and farms in recent decades have become disturbingly concentrated

45. Animals reason, communicate, suffer; humans share a common ancestor with them all

46. Arsenic, a long-time additive to chicken feed, found to be carcinogenic upon application

47. Fragile immune systems of factory animals require implementing airtight biosecurity

48. The sheer volume of flesh processed by America's foremost pig slaughterer, daunting

49. A recent study of coral reefs showed majority fished at a highly unsustainably rate

50. High-fiber diet slashes the risk for some cancers by up to 40 percent, controls diabetes

51. Manure-handling regulations come ridiculously overdue and sketchy; cow tax, off the table, says Obama administration

52. Mutilations such as debeaking, branding, castration, and ear notching are routine

53. Male chicks "useless," put to death by crushing, starvation, and exposure on egg farms

54. Aquaculture, is no-less disruptive to the environment than taking fish from the wild

55. Meat production in developing world tripled in recent years to half of the world's output

56. Fish eaters increasingly falling victim to the debilitating effects of mercury poisoning

57. Hoof-and-mouth disease is rarely fatal, but economics will dictate mass nationwide culls

58. Hydrogen sulfide emissions from mass feedlots eat the brains of neighbors over time

59. Genetics has created institutional suffering for food animals; now, cloning on horizon

60. Ecoli O157:H7 infects most cattle on U.Sfeedlots, allows x-contamination to veggies

61. Worldwide, fertilizer, pesticides, and manure-runoff enter waterways to form dead zones

62. The China Study, largest epidemiological study ever, offers ultimate vegan vindication

63. Fifty-two billion pounds of slaughterhouse byproduct transmogrified into consumer items

64. Get the omega-3 fatty acids you need with flax, without the mercury, PCBs and dioxins

65. Influenza, including the menacing H5N1 strain, would not exist if humans didn't eat poultry

66. Antidotes to filth: an industry of slaughterhouse pathogen-fighters comes into its own

67. : Cow's life "happy"? negativeNot with feedlots of feces, stanchion stalls, and udder infections

68. Meat's real cost: government subsidies, dead zones, dwindling aquifers, a health-care crisis, etc.

69. When you process farmed animals in giant "batches," you risk catastrophic mortailities, due to sudden disasters, such as fire

70. Feedlot operators cannot afford to dispose of their manure safely: Hello, ecoli-spinach

71. Today's turkeys cannot copulate on their own, thanks to toms' huge selectively bred breasts

72. Nothing humane about chicken slaughter: Stunner only there to facilitate the process

73. "Grass fed," cage-free," "organic," "free range" ..to "eat green" and "be kind," go vegan

74. Sport fishing enthusiasts beware: nearly every U.Sstate has a mercury-in-rivers advisory

75. Okinawa's old folks projected to outlive children who've adopted Western eating habits

76.There's no discernible difference between Democrats and Republicans when it comes to public policy toward the meat industry

77. The world's 3.2 billion cattle, sheep, goats, and domesticated bison pack an eco wallop

78. Mastisis at epidemic proportions on dairies, thanks to improper cow care, hormones

79. Wild frogs going extinct for the trade in frogs legs

80. Today, nitrogen is cheap and easy to come by; It's the reason we have cheap feed/meat

81. The average American eats nearly four times the protein he or she needs, mostly from animal sources. All should be derived from plants.

82. When meat is barbecued, dripped fat over coals sends up plumes of carcinogenic smoke

83. Worldwide, livestock production uses 30 percent of the land surface of the planet

84. In America, essentially all farmed animals will be trucked around at least once

85. Clog up your arteries on a meat diet and you risk suffering a heart attack or stroke

86. More than half of the nation's seafood companies do not follow federal food-safety rules

87. A U.N. official warns clock is standing at one minute to midnight for the great apes

88. Since Earth's plant species evolved to use scarce nutrients, today's ammonia gluts kill them

89. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Nipah virus, bird flu, and SARS: recent diseases from animals

90. The meat diet is likely to lead to nagging health conditions: constipation, heartburn, etc.

91. NYC food inspectors often confront merchants selling exotic and unauthorized meat

92. Thirty percent of all the world's fish catch is non-target species, or "bycatch"

93. Factory internment brings a breeding sow noxious filth, deafening noise, and tiny confines

94. Veterinary pharmaceuticals are making their way into our waterways via animal waste

95. Farmers mine Ogallala Aquifer of 5 trillion gallons per year to power a meat infrastructure

96. When Poland switched to vegetable fats and more fruit it suddenly had less heart disease

97. To produce foie gras, ducks are force-fed large portions of corn pellets three times a day

98. Laborers in the meat trades are faced with dangerous, hazardous and deadly conditions

99. Ag science works tirelessly to eke out every last bit of commodity wealth from farmed animals

100. Seniors who eat at least 2 servings of veggies a day test as younger by certain indicators

101. Future generations will pay for global warming, other eco-problems, thanks in large part to meat

NOTE: Click HERE for table of contents and index for the previoius 2007 edition.


Number refers to reason number
ABC Primetime, slaughterhouse investigation 32

abnormal blood pressure, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

abnormal heart rhythms, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

acidification of ecosystems, 14

AIDS, linked to bushmeat trade 89

algae growth in waterways, product of more nitrogen in environment 80

ammonia, compared to smokestack emissions 88, • emissions primarily caused by livestock 14, • in manure 2

anemia, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

angioplasty, common surgery for meat eaters 85

Animal Welfare Act, not applicable to farmed animals 20

animal-to-human disease, increasingly common 89

animals, butchered alive 5, • conditions of on factory farms 1, • cruelty to 20, • legal status of 1 and 20, • live, traded internationally, must be transported, over 1,000 miles typical 84, • mutilation, various kinds for various species 52, • their intelligence, individuality, and relationship to man 45

animals as byproduct, male chicks 53, • veal calves 30

antibiotic-resistant bacteria, found in supermarket chicken 17, • in general 9

antibiotic-resistant disease, various 9

antibiotics, 70 percent used in U.S. go to farmed animals 9, • those deemed important to humans used on animals, fostering antibiotic resistance in humans 9, • found in supermarket meat 17, • used to counter disease in fancy veal calves 30

antidotes to filth of feedlots, myriad types of technologies developed to combat harmful bacteria 66

antioxidants, only found in plant foods 13

aphrodisiacs, rendered from slaughterhouse byproduct 19

aquaculture, or fish farming, general overview 54, • no answer to overfishing of wild species 54

aquifers, levels dropping 22

arsenic, in chicken feed, risk to environment, consumer health 46

arthritis, linked to meat diet 90

artificial insemination, boar and sow 33, • in cows 67, • in pigs 93, • in turkeys, "toms" 71

asthma, disorder, due to hydrogen sulfide on hog farms 58

Atkins Diet, warned about by American Heart Association 37

back pain, common, linked to meat diet 90

bacteria, harmful, cost 10, • e. coli O157:H7 60, • found in meat 10, • found in supermarket chickens 17, • origins of on densely populated feedlots 66

battery cages, in hen operations 16

beef cattle, 36

behaviors, natural, thwarted by intensive confinement 26

Bentham, Jeremy, his famous quandary 45

bestiality, integral to pork, turkey, and dairy operations 33

biomass fishing, for aquaculture feed, threatens ecosystems 54

biosecurity, introduction to an industry practice 47

biotech, dubious answer to sagging supplies of food for the hungry 31

bird flu (H5N1), potential for worldwide catastrophe 65, • cost in terms of severed economic activity 65

bleedout, chickens fully sentient during slaughter 72

blood clots, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

Body Mass Index (BMI), 18

Bovine Somatotropin (bST), linked to mastitis 78

brain damage, hydrogen-sulfide poisoning 58, • mercury contamination 56

brain function, loss of, risk attributed to Atkins and other low-carb diets 37

brain growth, promoted in utero and in infancy via a diet rich in flax 64

branding, 52

breast cancer, linked to red meat 41

Brown 'N Serve Sausage Links, 101

burial, dead stock, attracts vermin, leaches nitrogen and methane into the environment, and poisons the groundwater 63

burned alive, livestock, mass on-farm catastrophes, one of numerous, the results of mass concentration of farmed animals 69

bushmeat, in Africa 89

bycatch from fishing (non-target species), 92

bypass surgery, largely preventable through diet and exercise 11, • long-term effects of 11

byproduct material, as portion of slaughtered animals 19, • billions of pounds derived and processed by renderers each year 63

cage space, approximately the size of caged hens 26, • approximately the size of caged sows 93

calcium, vital nutrient in vegetarian foods 79

calcium depletion, cuts life spans of cows short 67

California Milk Advisory Board (CMAB), creators of "Happy Cows" advertisement 67

Campbell, T. Colin, on cows' milk 34

campylobacter, a primary pathogen in poultry 10

cancer, and beef 3, • linked to red meat 41

carbohydrates, 13

carcass rinsing, ineffective at dislodging fecal matter from chicken 21

castration, mutilating procedure 52

catch and release, "Eating Sport Fish," factsheet 74

cattle industry, highly concentrated 44

certification programs, "grass fed," "eat with a conscience," "free range," "cage-free," "organic" 73

chemicals, drugs, used on feedlots, find their way to waterways via excreted urine, and feces of animals 94

chicken, feed-to-flesh ratio 8, • increased consumption of 46, • skyrocketing demand in the 1970s 21

chicken industry, as highly concentrated 44

chickens, good at solving problems 7

childhood diabetes, linked to milk consumption 34

chimpanzees, pig intelligence compared to 7

China, demand for reef fish 49

China Study, The, the ultimate vegetarian vindication 62

chlamydia, in manure 2

cholesterol, in meat 13

chronic sinusitis, disorder, due to hydrogen sulfide of hog farms 58

Clean Air Act , industry allowed to sidestep in sweetheart deal 51

climate change, caused by beef cattle 36

cloning, on horizon for future farms 59

cold and allergy symptoms, linked to meat diet 90

collard greens, associated with brain health 100

commodity wealth, eked out of animals by genetics scientists 99

complicated tasks, ability to perform, possessed by fish 43

composting, dead stock, often poorly managed, failing to adequately promote full decomposition and allowing vermin to carry disease off site 63

congestive heart failure, cost to society, leading cause of hospitalization among elderly 5

consolidation, in the slaughter industry (cattle, hogs, and chickens) and on farms 44

constipation, linked to meat diet 90

Consumer Reports, 17

contraband, meat of armadillos, iquanas, primates, turtles, frogs, and even rats 91

coral reefs, endangered by overfishing 49

corn-based feed, blamed for emergence of e. coli O157:H7 60

cosmetics, rendered from slaughterhouse byproduct 19

cow tax, "off the table," per Obama administration 51

cows, relationship to music 7

cross contamination, plant based foods infected with e. coli O157:H7 60

cruelty to animals, major cause due to the quadrupling in meat consumption worldwide over last half century 81, • battery hens 16, • battery hens 26 and 42, • by genetics 99, • by mutilation 52, • bycatch (fish) 92, • foie gras production 97, • forced molting 42, • sows 93, • veal calves 30, • Wildlife Services on behalf of ranchers 39

cyanide, destroying corals, used to capture reef fish 49

dark-green leafy vegetables, a source of magnesium, a vital nutrient 40

dead stock, 6 billion pounds accumulated on U.S. feedlots every year 63, • dangers lurk in disposal methods 63

dead zones, defined, dramatic rise in number around the world 61

debeaking, 52

defeathering rubber fingers, squirt feces from chicken carcasses 21

dehorning, 52

demand, fish, outstripping supply in the case of reef fish 49

demand, meat, in developing world 55

Department of Health, "Eating Sport Fish," factsheet 74

depression, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

diabetes, in general 13, • symptoms can be alleviated with the consumption of fiber 50, • symptoms eased with consumption of flax 64

disaster, all out, the cause for catastrophic mortalities 69

disease outbreak, bird-flu pandemic 65, • hoof-and-mouth disease 57

driftnets, 4

driftnetting, high-bycatch fishing technique 92

dripped meat fat on heat source, linked to carcinogenic fumes, residues 82

drugs, rendered from slaughterhouse byproduct 19

e. coli O157:H7, a primary pathogen in meat 10, • harbored in the interior of a solid piece of meat 24, • infects most feedlot cattle 60, • migrates to beef patty interiors 24

ear notching, 52

earaches, disorder, due to hydrogen sulfide on hog farms 58

"Eating Sport Fish," factsheet 74

Ebola, linked to bushmeat trade 89

ecological footprint, eg.: 3.2 billion cattle, sheep, goats, and domesticated bison 77

economic cost, anticipated bird-flu pandemic 65, • attributed to five meat-derived pathogens 10, • due to congestive heart failure 6, • hoof-and-mouth disease 57, • subsidies to commodity farmers 68

egg-laying hens, pigs, cows, cattle, bred to produce inordinate levels of commodity wealth 99

endocrine disruptors, feedlot drug pollution 94

environmental disruption, ammonia from feedlot lagoons 88, • aquaculture 25, • beef cattle 36, • ecological deficit 101, • feed-grain production 12, • illegal fishing 15, • livestock 83, • livestock production 14, • manure 12, • manure, in developing world 55, • overfishing 14

EPA, on mercury poisoning in utero 56, • sweetheart deal with CAFOs 51

erosion, livestock 77

exercise, regular, 11

factory farming, in developing world 55

Farm Bill, 2002 5

farmed animals, numbers of 1

farmed fish, feed-to-flesh ratio 8

farmers, funneled into contract arrangements that take away choices on how to run their farms 44

farmers, family, nudged out, now work "franchises," producing commodities to spec for giant grain conglomerates and processing houses 68

feather pulling, suffered by battery hens 26

fecal matter, lodged in chicken skin 21, • the vehicle for foodborne pathogens 70

feces, cows live in their own 67

feed, dried, tacky brown powder as 19, • poultry litter as 35

feed grains, 12

feed-to-flesh ratios, for various species 8, • some species of farmed fish as high as 25 to 1 54

feedlot drug pollution, endocrine disruptors 94

feedlot steer, feed-to-flesh ratio 8

fertilizer, as pollutant 12

fiber, as a weight-loss aid 50, • as an aid to lower risk for cancer 3, • cuts risk for cancers 50, • found only in plant foods 13, • soluble, contained in flax 64

fish, as individualistic 7, • feel pain 43, • not covered by Humane Slaughter Act 5

fish as a food source, produced using aquaculture 54, • world demand for 15

fish farming (see aquaculture), 54

fish feel pain, consensus by scientists 43

fish traders, Hong Kong, reef fish 49

fishing (see overfishing), as world's most dangerous profession 98, • techniques today 4

fishing conventions, side-stepped by illegal fishers 15

flax, ground seeds contain a wide variety of nutritional benefits 64

foie gras, production procedures 97

folate, vital nutrient in fruits and veggies 79

food irradiation, dubious antidote to slaughterhouse pathogens 66

food supply, meat from cloned animals projected to be included in 59

foodborne illness, 29 percent of all cases the result of produce (but don't blame the veggies!) 70

forced molting, as cruel practice in the egg industry 42

forests, vital to world ecology, being decimated by livestock production 83

fossil fuel, amount needed for production of beef, tofu 23

France, driftnetting renegade country 92

frogs, wild, going extinct from people capturing them for their leg flesh 79

fruits, switch to, coincides with drop in heart disease 95

gallstones, linked to meat diet 90

genetic manipulation, animals bred to stand up to the rigors of the industrial process 38, • creates suffering for farmed animals 59

genetics, wild fish threatened by escapees by domesticated species selectively bred for aquaculture operations 54

grain, fed to livestock 31, • percentage used as feed 8, • used to feed animals 22

great apes, poised for extinction 87

Great Barrier Reef, 49

Green Revolution, 31

greenhouse gas emissions, more from livestock than from vehicles 14

ground beef, made up of many animals 24

growth enhancing drugs, 30, , • suspected in human cancer 41, , • trade disputes over 76, , • cause of mastitis in cows, 78

Gulf of Mexico, location of giant dead zone 61

Gulf of Mexico, location of giant dead zone 61

H1N1, otherwise known as Swine Flu, now officially a pandemic 28

"Happy Cows" commercial, no indication of reality 67

heart attack, survivability of 6

heart disease, as biggest killer 11, • heart attack, stroke 85

heartburn, linked to meat diet 90

heme iron, possible reason red meat linked to breast cancer 41

hens, egg-laying, conditions of 16, • may be subjected to a forced molt 42

heterocyclic amines, possible reason red meat linked to breast cancer 41

hidden costs of meat, in regard to collective health, economy, and environment 68

high blood pressure, risk lowered in teens who eat lots of veggies 79

High Plains states, U.S., 95

high-protein diets, linked to fatigue, dizziness, dehydration, and loss of brain function 37

hog farms, source of hydrogen sulfide 58

Hoof-and-mouth disease, illness becomes death sentence for farmed animals 57

hormones fed to cattle, possible reason red meat linked to breast cancer 41

household products, rendered from slaughterhouse byproduct 19

human illness, resulting from meat-specific pathogens 10

Humane Slaughter Act, The, applies to precious few animals 5, • in general 5

hydrogen sulfide, effects of poisoning 58, • emitted by manure 2

hypertension, risk for heart attack, stroke 79

hypoxia, dead zones, defined 61

illegal fishing, percentage of total 15, • single biggest threat to global stocks 15

immunity to disease, factory chickens lack of 47

incineration, dead stock, poisons air with dioxin 63

indigestion , linked to milk consumption 34

Industrial Revolution, regarding nitrogen in environment 80

influenza, in manure 2

influenza pandemics, Swine flu officially an influenza pandemic, thanks to general domestication of animals for food 28, all forms kill half a million people per year 28

inspection, illegal meat, New York City 91, • seafood 86

intensive confinement, battery hens 26, • beef cattle 24, • chickens 16, • condition of chickens and pigs in North Carolina 29, • farmed fish 54

internal blood loss, linked to milk consumption 34

invasions of alien species, caused by beef cattle 36

iron, zinc, and high-quality protein, contained in flax 64

irritable-bowel disorders, linked to meat diet 90

Italy, driftnetting renegade country 92

IUU fishing, (illegal, unreported, or unregulated) 15

kale, associated with brain health 100

kidney stones, linked to meat diet 90

kidneys, strained by meat consumption 13

Kirk, Ron, U.S. trade representative, appeases meat industry on trade issues 76

knife cuts, rampant in meat plants 98

laborers, who perform artificial insemination of turkeys 71

lagoons, holders of pig excrement 29, • open air, on factory farms 88

legal protections of farmed animals, recently stripped of by states 20, • during transport 84

listeria, a primary pathogen in meat 10

livestock, hoarder of land surface of planet Earth 83, • leading player in world's ecological breakdown 36

Livestock's Long Shadow, U.N. report (2006) exposes startling eco-footprint of world's livestock 83

living wage, return on money, rare in the meat industry 98

longlining, prevalence of 4

mad cow disease, trade disputes over 76

magnesium, vital nutrient derived from plant-based foods 40, • vital nutrient in fruits and veggies 79

mangrove forests, removed for aquaculture pens along shorelines 54

manure, amount produced annually in North Carolina 48, • contaminants in 2, • cross contamination with raw produce 70, • from chicken feedlots 29, • great concentrations of in feedlots surrounding large cities in developing world 55, • handling regulations overdue, ineffective 51, • land sprayed becomes toxic by 2, • migrates to edible portions at slaughterhouse 24, • too expensive to manage properly, safely 70

manure, nitrogenous waste, in aquaculture 54

mastitis, as man-made livestock affliction 78

meat industry, overview 1

medication, cholesterol-lowering drugs 13

memory loss, hydrogen-sulfide poisoning 58

mercury, poisoning, in fish eaters 56

mercury-in-rivers advisories, 74

methane, byproduct of livestock production 14

milk (dairy), suspected carcinogen 34

minerals, found in plant foods 13

monoculture, in chicken industry, linked to disease outbreak 47

Morocco, driftnetting renegade country 92

mortalities, disposal of 16, • due to lost chickens in manure pits 16, • from foie gras production 97, • from hoof-and-mouth disease 57, • in reef fish 49, • integral to feedlots and stockyards 19, • on chicken feedlots 29, • Oregonian plan in place to deal with the effects of a full-blown bird-flu pandemic 65, a resource for byproduct consumer goods 63

mutant genes, cultivated to monstrous ends for sake of meat "machine" 38

mutilation, various kinds performed without anesthesia 52

n-nitroso compounds, carcinogenic substances in beef 3

nagging conditions, linked to meat diet 90

New York State's Department of Environmental Conservation, "Eating Sport Fish," factsheet 74

nitrogen, chemical discovery allows man, today, to extract abundant amounts from thin air 80

nitrous oxide, in manure 14

noise, conditions during transport of farmed animals 84, • conditions in farrowing crates 93

non-target wildlife, caught in crosshairs by USDA "damage control," perq to ranchers 39

North Carolina, hog manure in state 48, • home of millions of chickens and hogs 29

Norwegian rivers, wild salmon wiped out by farmed fish parasite in 25

nosebleeds, disorder, due to hydrogen sulfide on hog farms 58

Nurses' Health Study, 41

nutrient runoff, byproduct of today's mega meat production 80

obesity, vegans less at risk 18

odor, from chicken feedlots 29, • fumes from manure pits 16

Ogallala Aquifer, mined of water to support meat infrastructure 95

oil, amount needed to produce beef 23

Okinawa, parents projected to outlive children 75

omega-3 fatty acids, available via ground flax seeds, alternative to fish as source 64

Oregon, plan devised by anticipates full-blown bird-flu outbreak 65

organic meat, high in salmonella 17

outbreaks, foodborne, 29 percent of all cases the result of produce (but don't blame the veggies!) 70

overfishing, caused by beef cattle 36, • due to illegal fishing 15, • in general 4

overgrazing, by livestock 77, • the destruction of riparian zones, because of 36

pastures, rangelands degraded, 77

penis, stimulated by stock person to induce ejaculation in pursuit of artificial insemination 32

pesticides, as pollutant 12, • used in aquaculture operations 25

pharmaceuticals, used in farmed fish operations 25

phytochemicals, 13

phytonutrient lignans, contained in flax 64

pigs, by nature, clean 93, • feed-to-flesh ratio 8, • in nature 93, • intelligence 7, • intelligent 93, • slaughter statistics in graphic terms 48

piracy in fishing, tactics 15

Poland, and heart disease 95

pollution, caused by beef cattle 36, • manure, in developing world 55, • water 12

population, projected in 2050, numbers could be fed in a vegetarian world 27

Population Reference Bureau, announces hypothetical case 27

pork industry, as highly concentrated 44

potassium, vital nutrient in fruits and veggies 79

poultry, consumption of presents risk 17, • domestication of, the cause of global pandemics 28, • not covered by Human Slaughter Act 5

poultry litter, could provide vector for spread of bird flu 35, • fed to beef cattle presents mad-cow-disease risk 35, • infused with veterinary medications 35, • not always properly composted 35

predator control, deadly program on behalf of ranchers 39

probiotic bacteria, dubious antidote to slaughterhouse pathogens 66

profligate waste, water resources 95

protein, excess amounts in meat 13, • excess consumption of by Americans 81

protein, animal, linked to chronic disease 62

rape, another name for artificial insemination 71

raw cacao, most abundant source of magnesium, a vital nutrient 40

recycling, euphemism for meat byproduct processing or rendering 19

red meat, linked to breast cancer 41

red tides (harmful algae blooms), line some coastlines without break 61

rendering, defined 19, • employed to process billions of pounds of byproduct material every year 63

repetitive stress disorders, rampant in meat plants 98

restaurant grilling, linked to soot and smog 82

runoff, manure, impossible to trace to polluter 29

salmonella, in manure 2

salmonella test, failed by filthy meat plant 32

saturated fat, found in excess in meat 13, • possible reason red meat linked to breast cancer 41

saturated fat and cholesterol, linked to heart attack, stroke 85

schools, depository of generally unsanitary meat 32

Science, the journal, 4

Scotland, fears spread of Norwegean aquaculcure parasite 25

seafood, primarily imported 86

seafood companies, food-safety programs of 86

sedimentation of coastal areas, caused by beef cattle 36

seizures, symptom of magnesium deficiency 40

sexual stimulation, boar, description of first leg of artificial insemination 33, • sow, description of second leg of artificial insemination 33

shrimp, high-bycatch species 92

sickly creatures, cobras, civet cats, and anteaters, displayed in wet markets 89

single-trait selection, integral to today's intensive farming 38

slaughter, chicken, voltage of electrified brine bath set to low 72

Smithfield Foods, slaughter statistics in graphic terms 48, • implicated in Swine Flu pandemic 28

sonar, used in fishing 4

sows, living conditions 93, • pinned in place to expose teats to piglets 93

spent hens, 42

spinach, associated with brain health 100

Spock, Dr. Benjamin , views about cows' milk 34

stanchions, docking stations for cows 67

starvation and water deprivation, used to induce molting in layer hens 42

state laws, un-enforced or re-written to exclude farmed animals 20

steam pasteurization, dubious antidote to slaughterhouse pathogens 66

subsidies, in Poland 96, • to commodity (feed grain) farmers 68, • water 12

taco filling, made from animal lips 19

tail and toe docking, 52

technologies, combat pathogens that originate on factory farms 66

Toepfer, Klaus , U.N. Environment Programme executive director 87

top predator fish, reduced in number by 90 percent 4

trade disputes, due to animal-based foods 76

transport to slaughterhouse, crowded, cramped, noisy, and terrifying for animals 84

"trash fish", 4

turkeys, bred for large breasts, cannot physically copulate 71

udder infections, cut lifespans of cows short 67

udder rubbing, necessary as part of sow artificial insemination 33

unsanitary conditions, found in slaughterhouse during investigation 32

USDA feed rule, suspected contradiction in the case of poultry litter 35

veal calf, life of in fancy veal production 30

vegan/vegetarian diet, as preventer of heart disease 11, • could feed hungry planet well into the future 27, • for most people precludes need for angioplasty 85, • health benefits of 13, • recommended by Dr. Benjamin Spock 34

vegetarian diet (replete with vegetables), associated with brain health 100

vegan lifestyle, conducive to lower body weight 18

vegetable fats, switch to, coincides with drop in heart disease, Poland 95

vegetable protein, water usage to produce 22

vibratory sounds, detected in fish 43

viruses, sprays of, dubious antidote to slaughterhouse pathogens 66

vitamins, found in plant foods 13

Washington Post, series on Humane Slaughter Act 5

waste, of natural resources 27

water, a scarce resource 95, • excessive use of by meat producers 22, • needed to produce one hamburger 22, • used in agriculture 22

wet markets, China 89

wild fish, endangered by aquaculture 54

Wildlife Services, USDA program 39

wing and comb removal, 52

wire floor, surface battery hens must perch upon 26

World Health Organization (WHO), 31

world hunger, hypothetically a non-issue in a vegetarian world 27, • in the face of wasteful consumption of grain 31, • statistics on 8

world's terrestrial plants, geared to use scarce amounts of nutrients (nitrogen fertilizers), not today's gluts from livestock production 88